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legal terms

legal terms Administrative Prohibition - the prohibition imposed on the debtor's salary based on his consent. Such a prohibition is equivalent in effect to an enforcement order. Affect - An emotional state of intense discomfort or fear characterized by an inability to think in the short term, or a state of narrowed consciousness in the perpetrator, of particular importance for determining the guilt of the offender. Lawyer - a person professionally engaged in advocacy as an activity whose main function is to provide professional legal assistance in accordance with the advocacy law. Advocacy - among others, the following: providing legal advice, drafting various pleadings (applications, lawsuits, petitions, motions, appeals, etc.), drafting various documents (contracts, wills, etc.), representing the parties in all judicial and administrative proceedings and others. proceedings before all ordinary and other courts, other government bodies, arbitrations and legal entities; Defending and representing the accused in criminal, misdemeanor and other proceedings in which the liability of natural and legal persons is determined; and provide other forms of legal assistance to natural and legal persons in order to protect their rights and interests. Advocacy, as a professional activity, is carried out by lawyers as individuals. Lawyers for the purpose of practicing the profession together may form a joint law firm and a law firm. Counsel's Secret - Counsel is obligated to keep Counsel's secret all that a party has entrusted to him, unless Counsel is released from this obligation on the basis of the party's express or implied consent, which includes, among other things, cases when a party has initiated disciplinary proceedings against Counsel, When it is necessary to defend the lawyer in criminal proceedings brought against him, when the lawyer suspects that a more serious criminal offense is imminent and when the lawyer begins litigation to cover costs and expenses owed to him by the party. Other persons who work or have worked in a law firm, joint law firm, or law firm are also required to maintain attorney confidentiality. Takeover - A term used in US competition law to refer to the acquisition of a majority share capital or majority voting right in a company by another company. It is usually associated with the term consolidation, which refers to the integration (merger, acquisition) of companies, and is used as a unique challenge to mergers and acquisitions (M&A). In European law, the term is used - corporate concentration. Unlike the term merger, acquisition does not necessarily mean merger, if it is an amalgamation of companies, but both companies can continue to operate as independent legal and economic entities. Excise duty - excise duties and indirect taxes (which are not collected directly from individuals, but through producers, sellers and other intermediaries) on domestic goods and services. Joint Stock Company (FBiH: DD RS: AD) - a business entity whose capital is divided into shares (shares) of a certain nominal value. Acceptance of a bill of exchange - a term referring in the case of a drawn bill to the acceptance of the obligation of a bill of exchange by the drawee who has been invited by the drawer to accept the bill when issuing the bill - with reference to his personal data and an indication of the drawee's ownership. By accepting the bill, the drawee becomes the acceptor and at the same time the main debtor of the bill. A bill of exchange is accepted by signing on the bill essentially on the obverse with an indication of the acceptance, if. The taking of a bill of exchange for obligation is expressed in the word "acceptance" or "acceptance" or the like. Acceptance must be unconditional, but may be partial, i.e. limited to a portion of the bill of exchange. In the event of refusal to accept, advance payment - an amount of money, upon the conclusion of a contract or during its performance, given by one of the contracting parties to account for his contractual obligation to the other party, in order to facilitate the fulfillment of that other party's obligation. The advance payment is usually made in cash and becomes the property of the recipient, provided that, after the fulfillment of the contract, it is included in the fulfillment of the obligation of the giver. Pardon - release from criminal prosecution or full or partial release from execution of a sentence, substitution of a sentence for a lighter one, deletion of sentence or abolition of the legal consequences of sentence to an indefinite number of persons on the basis of an act of the legislative power. Substitute Obligation - An obligation in which the debtor owes two or more acts, but once he has fulfilled one of them, he is released from the obligation. An alternative obligation is based, as a rule, on a contract, but it may also arise from a unilateral act or even on the basis of law. A choice is considered when the party to whom the right to choose belongs informs the other party of what it has chosen, and from that moment on the option cannot be changed without the consent of the other party. The right of choice also ends when the debtor begins to perform any of the many acts. Amendment - a reform in addition to a law and a proposal to amend it. Depreciation - a gradual decrease in the value of the company's assets, calculated annually in accordance with the procedures established by law. Because the amount of depreciation is deducted from the tax base each year, the method of depreciation influences the decision on how to finance the purchase of equipment. Absolute statute of limitations - the impossibility of initiating or continuing criminal proceedings, that is, the execution of a criminal penalty due to the expiration of twice the period established by law for the occurrence of the statute of limitations. Auction - A price formation process during which potential buyers compete for the price they are willing to bid for the desired item. The buyer who earns the most, has the right to buy the required quantity at the offered price. Author's work - an original intellectual creation created by a specific person. It consists of an idea embodied in a certain form in the field of literature, science, art and other areas of creativity. Written works, speech works, dramatic and musical dramas, musical works, works from the field of painting, sculpture, architecture, photographic works, etc. are considered author's works. Copyright - a set of legal rules that govern relations related to the creation of literary, scientific and artistic works of all kinds. Copyright includes ownership of the author and moral rights. Property rights are the exploitation of copyright work, such as publication, reproduction, copying, display, performance, etc. relatives. Administrative price - prices set by the entrepreneur in such a way that they do not change depending on short-term fluctuations in the conditions of supply and demand in the market. Adhesion contract - is a contract in which the bidder undertakes to enter into the contract accepting all the terms in the form which proposes any change and does not agree to it. The person offered can accept or reject the terms entirely. The bidder does not participate in the creation of the contract, there are no elements of negotiation, so the autonomy of the parties is reduced to the acceptance or rejection of the entire bid. Competition protection agencies - are special bodies of state administration with an extremely high degree of autonomy in action and decision-making, which are responsible for the implementation of competition law and policy. Advances - an amount of money that, when concluding a contract or during its fulfillment, one of the contracting parties gives to account for the fulfillment of an obligation (dissolution), even before a claim is due. An advance, therefore, is neither the final fulfillment of the contractual obligation to advance payment, nor the partial or unconditional payment of the agreed price or any other kind of charge, for it is granted upon fulfillment of the agreed action to the beneficiary of the advance, all on the general condition that the contract is fulfilled on duly. Arbitration or trial selection - is the correct method of resolving disputes, in which disputes are resolved out of court, and the parties submit their subject matter to one or more persons (arbitrator, arbitrators, arbitral tribunal). The arbitrator, if the arbitral tribunal as a non-governmental court derives its authority to resolve the dispute from the agreement of the parties. Antitrust - a term that combines areas of competition law (competition law) and competition policy (competition policy). Banking agreements are bilaterally binding legal transactions that banks conclude with their customers and other entities, regulating their mutual rights and obligations, and are mainly regulated by rules of mandatory law and dispositional rules. Features of banking contracts are as follows: the subject of their work is the circulation of funds and securities and the provision of services related to this subject; At least one party is always a bank; Bank contracts are generally formal; A large part of the contract is concluded using forms prepared by the bank, and customers deal with banks on the basis of their general and specific terms. Significantly reduced mental health - a state of impaired thinking and decision-making ability, if the offender's ability to understand the significance of his crime and manage his actions is reduced, is of particular importance because it is an optional basis for mitigating the offender's sentence Bilateral agreements - international agreements concluded between the two parties. As a general rule, contracting parties are states, not international organizations, since international organizations, although they constitute one contracting party, represent interests and can create obligations for several states of its members. Empty criminal offenses - criminal offenses in which the legal description does not contain all the elements, but the criminal rule must be supplemented with the standard given in another regulation. Empty clauses can refer to an act of higher legal force, eg: Convention on the Non-Limitation of War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity, Geneva Convention, etc., to an act of the same legal force, eg: ZOBS, or to an act of lower legal force such as the order relating to the unlawful termination of pregnancy. Brand - The name that is commonly used for reputable and consumer recognizable products with a well-known brand/service mark. Thus, the brand name has been established as a technical term for reputable products that are recognizable to consumers. It gives the consumer a certain assurance of the stable properties of the product which attracted him to that product, which he accepted and became attached to that product. Defense attorney - an attorney who represents a suspect or accused person in criminal proceedings in the function of professional assistance in providing defence. Marital disputes - are the disputes that arise in marital relations or on the occasion of marital relations (divorce, dissolution of marriage, to determine the existence and non-existence of marriage), due to the nature of these disputes, the audience is always excluded. customs - a tax on imports, less often on exports of goods; The amount of money imposed by the state on the owner of the goods when crossing the border. They are usually by value, ie. As a percentage of the value of the goods, but it can also be specific (in a certain amount per unit weight or volume) and combined. In administrative terms, the customs is the whole department that applies the regulations in the customs area. A customs Firm is also an Firm where goods are cleared from customs and collected by the customs (customs Firm). Central bank - the main financial institution of the monetary system; A bank has a legal monopoly in modern market economies on the issuance of legal tender, or reserve money (often called reserve money), plus the right of commercial banks to hold some reserves with it. Assignment - assignment, assignment of a claim, transfer of a disposable claim from a previous creditor (assignor) to a new creditor (assignee), and the debtor (agent) and the claim remain the same. The possible legal basis for assignment is contract, law, and court decision. Each assignment is a supplementary legal transaction preceded by a main transaction, so the reasons for assignment can be very different, such as debt payment, purchase, gift, assignment in the name of mortgage, etc. Black Exchange - Parallel, but illegal, commodity and currency markets, in which illicit trading takes place at prices that differ significantly from those in the legal market. Black market activities include smuggling of goods, currency, and securities and speculative selling by circumventing legal regulations and permanently placing products whose free sale is prohibited (such as drugs). factual situation - a set of facts established by the body conducting the procedure in order to resolve a specific legal issue; The meaning of each action is to identify a factual situation as a reflection of a life situation to which a legal criterion can be applied, on the other hand, to anticipate a life situation with the aim that this criterion will always be applied when that life situation is achieved. Tort - in criminal law, a term denoting unlawful conduct (criminal, misdemeanor, and economic offences), in civil law, a term denoting any act harmful to another person's property or non-property goods, which results in the lesion's obligation to compensate the injured party. Share - A security that represents ownership interest in a joint stock company. shareholder, ie. The shareholder is entitled to a percentage of everything the joint-stock company owns, including his right to the joint-stock company's profits. Joint-stock companies usually pay a dividend to their shareholders out of the company's net profit, and the amount of the dividend often increases as the company's profits grow. Direct intent - a form of the perpetrator's attitude to the act itself, which exists when the offender knows what consequences the act will have and when he wants such results. Partial Judgment - Judgment of a civil court that may be rendered when, as a result of a confession or on the basis of a hearing, some of the several claims or part of a claim is eligible for a final decision. Evidence - a fact on the basis of which the body conducting the procedure (criminal, litigation, administrative ...) determines the presence or absence of a fact depends on its presence or absence in a particular legal matter. Evidence - the sources of knowledge of the body conducting the procedure on the presence or absence of legally relevant facts. Evidence procedure - a stage of the procedure in which the operating body determines, on the basis of evidentiary means, the presence or absence of legally relevant facts. Maturity - the moment when the creditor is authorized to demand the fulfillment of the vessel, if the obligation is monetary, the moment when he is authorized to demand its payment. The day a loan, loan installment, loan guarantee, or other obligation is due and must be repaid. Delivery - a legally organized procedure for the purpose of delivering a letter to a specific addressee (party, other participant in the procedure, body) is carried out by a court or other body to familiarize the addressee with its content. As a rule, a special document (note of delivery) is drawn up on the completed delivery. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - a measure of the total value of the production of goods and services of a national economy in a given period, usually in one year. It is determined by evaluating and aggregating products and services at market prices. Gross domestic product, as the broadest system for calculating the value of gross production, contains social output and national income. The social product is the value of total social production which is cleared of intermediate products and includes only the value of those types of goods that come into the market as means of consumption (consumer goods) and funds of investment (capital goods). National income or net (net) social product is the value we consider to be a newly created value. Newly created value is the result of one firm (country) labor in producing materials in a given period (usually one year). Limited Liability Company (LLC) - a company that has the status of a legal entity and in which each member (natural or legal person) participates in his primary role in the capital, provided that the company is responsible to third parties up to a substantial shareholding. Company obligations. Mental disorder - the basis for the exclusion of guilt, a state of improper conduct of mental processes that causes a disturbance of perception, reasoning, opinion, so that this person is not able to think and make a correct decision. Expropriation - forced deprivation of property rights to real estate due to the existence of a public interest, with the payment of fair monetary compensation. Extradition - an act of providing international legal assistance consisting of the issuance by a state of a criminal offender by a state to another state for the purpose of prosecution for a criminal offense committed or for the purpose of serving a prison sentence. Electronic banking services - represent the use of banking services and the performance of banking transactions carried out by the party, the account holder and the customer of the bank, through personal computers or terminals from locations through which access to the telecommunications network for data transmission. Embargo - a type of trade restriction, if a form of trade quota completely or partially prohibits the exchange of certain goods with a particular country. An import ban places a ban on the entry of a certain product into a country, with the aim of balancing the balance of payments with foreign countries and/or with the aim of protecting domestic production. Most often, import bans are imposed on luxury products or on certain agricultural products. An export ban during war prohibited exports to enemy and allied nations. Issuer - The issuer, company or other authorized person to issue securities (checks, shares, etc.) Condominium - the right of ownership of an apartment or commercial building, as a separate part of a building with several apartments and / or commercial premises, associated with certain rights and obligations in relation to the common parts of the building and the land on which the building is built. In the common parts of the building (foundation, main walls, attic, roof, basement, etc.), in addition to the land, apartment owners have the right to use it, but they are also obliged to pay for the maintenance of these parts and the land. Final intention - there is a form of the offender's attitude to the act itself, when the offender is aware of the possibility of an outcome that he does not want, but agrees to its occurrence, i.e. agrees to its occurrence. Invoice - a document issued by a bailiff or supplier of goods or service provider to the recipient of goods or services, in which he specifies the goods or services delivered or delivered in quantity and type, costs, taxes, methods of payment, etc. An invoice is considered an original document on the basis of which a payment order can be issued, i.e. an enforcement action can be determined and executed. Confederation (federal state ) - a community of several units, created on a constitutional basis, called states, republics, provinces, countries, provinces and cantons (federal units). A federation is a form of state organization with a high degree of decentralization and autonomy of the federal units, while the original sovereignty belongs to the combined state, if the individual federal units do not have the right to self-determination. The union is an alliance with the state; Therefore, the state title does not belong to individual units, but to the whole. The federal state (the federation) is as such the subject of international law. It works in international relations for all federal units gathered in it. Branch - a company whose capital at nominal value belongs to more than 50%, if. Owned by another company or group of companies. This other company, a group, is the parent company that participates in the management and control of the operations of the branch by controlling the election, composition and functioning of the board of directors and executive bodies. Fiscal year - the accounting period in which government revenues and expenditures are planned and executed. It covers 12 consecutive months, 52 consecutive weeks or 365 consecutive days. Natural person - the name of human life as a subject of law. Legal capacity is. The capacity to be the bearer of rights and duties is not innate to man, but rather a social property which may or may not be recognized by every man's legal system. A normal person is born. The normal person ceases to die. The main hearing - the stage of civil proceedings in which the presentation of evidence determines the facts on the basis of which the court decides the case filed. Principal debtor - the person who originally assumed the obligation to the creditor. It can be joined by other persons in various ways (guarantee), but the obligations of other debtors depend on the principal debtor's fulfillment of his obligation. The main trial - the stage of criminal proceedings before the court of first instance in which the facts are established directly, orally and publicly, through the presentation of evidence, on the basis of which the court decides on the existence of a criminal offense, the criminal liability of the offender and the criminal penalty. Civil law - a branch of law that regulates property relations and other relations that are directly or indirectly related to property relations, branches of real law, contract law, inheritance law, family law, civil procedure law, etc. Greenfield Investment - A technical term used to denote direct investment, usually foreign capital. It is an investment of capital made abroad by residents of a country. This can be an investment in creating your own company (such as a new company), an investment in creating a joint venture (such as creating a joint venture), or creating or opening a branch (branch). A feature of this form of investment is that the investor gains control and actively exercises control, managing the company in which he has invested. Accordingly, direct investments differ from the so-called investment portfolio (investment portfolio; rentier investments). Unlike venture concentrations, in which the investor acquires, to put it simply, control and management over an already existing venture, it is always a matter of setting up a new venture. Mortgage - a security collection tool by which the bank, in case of irregular repayment of a loan, can seize the client's property in order to collect his dues. In the case of a mortgage, the property is pledged to the bank. The customer retains ownership of the property. Mortgage loan - a special type of long-term loan granted by banks and other specialized financial institutions to citizens and companies on the basis of their salary in real estate. Repayment of the loan is ensured by real coverage of the debtor with residential or commercial premises, land, commercial premises, warehouses, etc. The lender pays off the loan provides the so-called. In tabulation - the legal procedure for registering a security claim on the debtor's real estate. The guarantee of loan repayment is not in the creditworthiness of the borrower but in the value of the property. Indirect taxes - indirect and indirect taxes on goods and services that are collected indirectly through intermediaries - importers, producers or sellers. The objective of indirect taxes can be revenue collection (sales tax, value added tax, excise duty, customs duties), or protection (some types of customs duties). inflation - an excessive increase in the money supply, which leads to a decrease in the value of money and a general rise in prices; An imbalance in the relations between commodities and money resulting from an increase in the circulating money supply and the mass of approved loans compared to the size of the available commodity fund expressed in total prices. Witness testimony - the evidence on the basis of which the body performing the action learns, and on the basis of direct sensory observation of a person (witness), the facts on the basis of which they are or are not in a specific legal matter (legally relevant facts) is based. Investigation - a stage of preliminary criminal proceedings that begins on the basis of a decision to conduct an investigation against a person suspected of committing a crime, and at the request of an authorized public prosecutor, the purpose of the investigation is to collect evidence in order to decide whether to bring charges. Exception - the establishment of the Code of Criminal Procedure (and other procedural rights) with the aim of contributing to objectivity in the work and decision-making of the court; Its application leads to the exclusion from proceedings of judges and other persons (ordinary judges, president of the court, prosecutors and deputies, registrars, interpreters, experts, experts) when there are reasons to question their objectivity (impartiality); Reasons for exclusion are divided into reasons that a judge or other person should be compulsorily excluded and reasons that give rise to doubts about objectivity. Extract from the cadastre - a document certifying who owns a particular real estate. Access to land records is public and access to land records can be granted to anyone who makes an appropriate request. An extract from the cadastre is a document required when applying for a site permit and a decision on building conditions. The data in the land books must be identical to the data in the caster. The ZK extract consists of 3 sheets - title deed, title deed and bill of lading. Enforcement document - a legal act on the basis of which enforcement of a claim established by this law can be requested. Enforcement procedures - a set of rules according to which the court acts for the purpose of enforcing a court decision providing for the fulfillment of an obligation, as well as for securing claims, for enforcing decisions made in administrative or misdemeanor proceedings providing for the execution of a monetary obligation, as well as for securing a monetary claim. Those against whom an administrative ruling or a misdemeanor has been issued. Guarantor - a person who, together with the borrower, jointly guarantees the bank for regular repayment and gives consent that in case of irregular repayment of the loan, the bank can collect its dues from it. Guarantee - a contract whereby a third party, the guarantor, obliges the creditor to fulfill the debtor's obligation if the debtor fails to do so. The guarantor's obligation is a secondary obligation, which means that the guarantor's obligation exists if there is a valid obligation of the principal debtor. The characteristic of the guarantee is dependency, which means that the creditor can only demand fulfillment of the obligation (resolution) from the guarantor when he fails to settle with the principal debtor. The creditor shall be deemed to have failed to settle after the expiration of the debtor's remaining period to fulfill the obligation in a written summons sent to him by the creditor. Public document - a document issued or confirmed in the prescribed form by a state or other authorized body, within its powers, such as an extract from registration books, a school certificate, various certificates, an extract from a commercial register, etc. Public Enterprises - Firms in a monopoly position that provide essential goods and services, and are subject to a public administration that must ensure that they operate in the public interest. Prosecutor's Firm - an independent state body concerned with the protection of property and other civil law interests of the state or other entities of local self-government. Firm of the Attorney General - an independent government body whose most important function is the prosecution of criminal offences; The Firms of public prosecutors in Bosnia and Herzegovina are supervised by the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Jurisdiction - jurisdiction, jurisdiction. Jurisprudence - legal science, a body of knowledge related to legal norms in their practical application, case law. Interest - the price of using other people's money. Interest is the amount of money a borrower has to pay on a loan at some point in time -- usually within a year. advance payment - the value of a certain property, usually a sum of money or some other exchangeable thing that one contracting partner gives to another when concluding a contract to confirm the conclusion of the contract and as a sign of the fulfillment of the contract. The advance payment is not pledged, but made, and its purpose is to confirm the conclusion of the contract, a means of strengthening the contract, and often the partial performance of the contract by the party giving the advance payment. If the contractual obligations are duly performed, the advance payment or what is given in the name of the advance payment is returned to the contracting party or included in the fulfillment of the obligation. Register - Public records on land that contain data on the location, shape, area, and method of land use. Punishment - a type of criminal punishment by the execution of which the criminally responsible offender is deprived or restricted from certain freedoms and rights, as well as a misdemeanor penalty and punishment in actions related to economic crimes. Criminal Records - Records of criminal convictions maintained by the Home Firm; Data on deleted convictions can only be made available to the Public Prosecutor's Firm, the Court and the internal affairs bodies in connection with ongoing criminal proceedings. defamation - in the sense of civil law, making or imparting honor and reputation to adverse factual allegations that are untrue about a person, which may give rise to an obligation to compensate the defamed person for non-pecuniary damage caused by damage to parts and reputation; In the criminal law sense, a criminal offense whose entity is described as exposing or imparting something untrue to a person that would be detrimental to his honor and reputation. Interblend clause - is a provision (clause) of a contract that deals with real estate. With this provision, the disposer, more often than not the seller, expressly allows the purchaser, in right or the purchaser, to register, if the registration of acquired rights in the cadastre. Although an interblend clause will normally allow rights to property to be registered in the cadastre, it may also allow any other rights to be registered in those books, depending on the rights transferred under that contract. for example. The contract establishing a lien on a property will contain an overlapping clause that will allow the registration of the real mortgage, i.e. the mortgage, and not the registration of title. Know how - in a narrow sense, the applied technical knowledge, methods, and data necessary for the practical realization and application of technologies that serve industrial purposes. These are all knowledge and experiences that have not been applied for for a patent, and which sometimes need to be mastered in order to be able to apply a patented or unpatented invention, new technology, etc .; Unprotected knowledge, because sometimes its owner does not want to protect it. An invention may remain unprotected, and be merely knowledgeable, when the inventor is unwilling to publish particulars of it, which would be his duty if he patented it; In a broader sense, it is not limited to the field of technology, but includes all the knowledge and experience necessary for modern business, ie. Refers to company organization, bookkeeping, Limited partnership - a company in which two or more natural or legal persons join for the purpose of permanent activities under a joint venture, in which at least one person is responsible for the obligations of the company with all its assets, unlimited, jointly and severally (therefore - called general partner), while one person bears on least responsible. Only until the value of his role (alleged leader). It belongs to the face group of companies. Franchise - a contract with the state according to which the entrepreneur (franchisee) obtains consent or acquires the right, with payment of compensation to the state, economic exploitation of natural resources and other goods determined by law to be of interest to the state, the right to perform activities of interest to the state and the right to use facilities facilities to perform these activities. An important feature of franchising is the existence of two acts: the franchising decision (issued by the state) and the franchising agreement (between the state and the right holder). Confederation - is an alliance of states, which unite into a community, while each retaining the right of self-determination, ie. that the allied unit may decide to separate from the present community by a completely independent decision, regardless of the will of others. Continental unions are rare and the most unstable: transformation into union or disintegration. Corruption - an undesirable social phenomenon that leads to a weakening of citizens" confidence in the work of the administration and a weakening of citizens" trust in laws and government. The basic determinants of this term are mainly limited to carrying out illegal forms of influence in the performance of governmental, public, economic and other duties and tasks for the purpose of achieving specific material gains or benefits. Such actions, which are most often detrimental to the public service and interest, jeopardize the functioning of the rule of law, which manifests itself as the equality of all before the law and the foundations of the rule of law. Corruption works against the legitimacy of actions in all spheres of social activity and leads to the destruction of confidence in the existence of the rule of law and the welfare state. Where corruption operates, there is no confidence in exercising the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the constitution and laws. Corruption aims to exercise some rights or interests that a particular person or group does not have legal capabilities or to exercise rights and interests that have legal capabilities, but in a way that creates a privileged position in relation to the rights and interests of others who have the same legal capabilities to achieve them. strictly necessary - in the civil law sense, the basis for excluding liability for damages if the damage to someone else's property is urgently needed in order to eliminate the risk of damage to one's own property; In the sense of criminal law, there is a reason that precludes the existence of a criminal offense when the offense is committed in order for the offender to remove from himself or others an undisguised danger that cannot be otherwise eliminated, if the evil done is not greater than the threat threatened. Credibility - the creditworthiness of the borrower. Creditworthiness means the ability of the borrower to return approved funds to the lender within a specified period with agreed interest. Assessment of the borrower's credibility is an assumption without which a loan cannot be granted to the borrower. Loan - assignment of a certain amount of money by a financial organization (bank, etc.) as a creditor (creditor, lender) to a debtor (debtor - borrower), with the obligation to return it within the agreed period and pay the corresponding amount. Fee - interest. Guilt - Guilt exists if the offender was sane at the time of the crime and acted with intent, just as guilt exists if the offender acted negligently, which the law expressly provides for. Criminal Report - Oral or written notification to the competent public prosecutor that a criminal offense has been committed ex officio. Criminal offense - a socially dangerous offense established by law and the characteristics of which are determined by law. Criminal law - a system of legal regulations that defines criminal offenses, criminal penalties, requirements for proving guilt, and requirements for punishing criminal offenders. Leasing - A special form of financing based on the idea that using the subject matter of leasing is better than buying. Leasing allows the user to acquire some equipment or property to use for as long as they need it, rather than buying it. There are two basic types of leasing - financial and operating. In the case of an operating lease, the leased asset remains the property of the lessor (the leasing company) for the duration of the lease, but can be sold to third parties upon its expiration. In the case of a finance lease, the subject matter of the lease becomes the full ownership of the user with the last rental installment paid. Liquidation - a term with many meanings: in law and economics it means the cessation of the existence of an economic entity. Within the framework of our legal regulations in force to date, two liquidation procedures have been distinguished: Regular liquidation procedure - it begins if any of the following conditions occur: failure to meet the conditions set for performing a certain activity, the disappearance of the natural conditions for the renewal of certain activities (exhaustion of raw materials), and loss-making business for a long period. Compulsory liquidation or bankruptcy proceedings - includes court proceedings regarding the debtor's property that is no longer involved in settling its obligations to creditors. Bankruptcy proceedings result in the liquidation of the debtor's assets to settle the creditors" liabilities. Liquidity - the property of an asset or its individual parts to be converted into sufficient cash to cover liabilities. Therefore, liquidity, along with profitability, is one of the basic principles of business in a commodity economy. A company's liquidity is often defined as its ability to meet its obligations in a timely manner. Macroeconomics - the study or science of the national economy, as opposed to the study of entrepreneurship (microeconomics) or the study of some economic field or branch (mezzoeconomics). Macroeconomics studies global quantities (gross domestic product, its structure and movement, supply and consumption aggregates, prices and their movement, investments, relations and trends in international trade, social finance, etc.), in addition to explaining objective laws in economic phenomena through the application of economic analysis methods ( econometrics), looking for appropriate solutions for practical economics (economic policy). Mediation - Mediation is a procedure in which a third, neutral person (MEDIATOR) assists the parties in their efforts to reach a mutually acceptable resolution to a dispute. The mediator establishes and facilitates dialogue between the parties, in order to achieve this goal. The mediator does not make decisions on how to resolve the dispute. During the process, each party to the dispute can present their views, explain how the current conflict affects them, and what options would satisfy their interests. The mediator will listen carefully, guide the parties to discuss key issues, identify the parties" common views and interests, and help the parties base their agreement on them. meritorious court decision - in civil proceedings, a decision on the merits of a dispute, a decision on the merits of a dispute (a decision on the merits). In criminal proceedings, the main subject of decision-making (the existence of a criminal offense, guilt and the determination of a criminal penalty). Microeconomics - a part of economic science that studies the economic field of entrepreneurship, business, corporations and all other entities that appear in the market of supply and demand. bill of exchange - securities prescribed by law; A type of compulsory security whose economic function is to provide security to the debtor for payment to the creditor with the debtor assuming an abstract monetary obligation to the creditor, the fulfillment of which is due according to the indication on the bill of exchange itself. Security measures - penalties aimed at eliminating potentially dangerous situations arising from the personality of the offender or from some real circumstances, or at the removal of conditions or circumstances that may influence the offender from committing criminal offenses in the future. Such measures may include: prohibition of communication, activity or duty, prohibition of driving a vehicle, compulsory psychiatric treatment and custody in a medical institution, compulsory psychiatric treatment in general, compulsory treatment for alcoholics and drug addicts, seizure of objects, foreigners from the country). Warning measures - penalties imposed by a criminal court on an offender responsible for a criminal offense in cases when it considers, based on all the circumstances, that the threat of punishment will achieve the purpose of punishment. Territorial jurisdiction - the right and duty of a court with actual jurisdiction (criminal, civil or court adjudicating in proceedings relating to economic crimes) or another body (misdemeanor) or administrative body to decide a specific legal question from its territory. Settlement - A contract whereby the parties end a dispute or uncertainty in a legal relationship achieved by mutual concession, such that the dispute is ended or the uncertainty is removed. Settlement regulates mutual rights and obligations, provided that it not only means a reduction or increase in an existing obligation (such as interest rates), but it can also assume a new obligation. Insolvency - the inability to pay due obligations within their due dates. In the event of certain delays in the payment of outstanding obligations, we speak of temporary insolvency, while permanent insolvency means the complete cessation of payment in the event of the imminent bankruptcy of the company; Sometimes, insolvency also means a situation where the company's assets are less than its debts. Bankruptcy is the main financial reason for company bankruptcy. It is associated with illiquidity (there is a strong relationship and correlation between illiquidity and bankruptcy). In the short term, however, the occurrence of insolvency need not lead to bankruptcy, just as no insolvency must result from insolvency. Negligence - a form of guilt, easier than intent, involuntarily committing an offense. Notary Public - A notary is a public service holder who performs professionally, independently, independently, impartially and exclusively as a profession during the period for which he is appointed. The documents presented by the notary have the character of public documents. Notaries are appointed by the Minister of Justice, and the state supervises and controls the work of notaries. The notary handles legal affairs, for example, drawing up a contract for the sale of real estate, receiving documents, securities and other items for safekeeping. It verifies the identity of the participants in a legal transaction, determines the factual situation, advises all participants on the legal consequences, and takes care of the conclusion of an agreed contract in accordance with the will of the parties. Real estate - things that cannot change their position in space without destroying their core or changing the existing structure. The concept of real estate in law often extends to things that are movable in nature. Apart from land, real estate is also everything that is permanently connected to the land, either mechanically or organically. Bankruptcy - the inability of the smooth flow of factors important to the business process and their conversion from cash to physical forms and from materials to money. Non-material harm - damage caused by violation of personal rights (physical or mental integrity, pain, fear, infringement of parts and reputation, damage) Immovable things - things that cannot be moved without damaging their very essence. insanity - the inability of the offender to comprehend the significance of his act and manage his actions while committing a criminal offense; An insane offender is not convicted of a criminal offence, but is given a security measure of compulsory psychiatric treatment or confinement in a health institution or compulsory psychiatric treatment free-hand (see: Security measures, compulsory psychiatric treatment or confinement in a health institution, compulsory psychiatry as a whole). Fine - A type of property penalty consisting of requiring the perpetrator of a criminal offense, misdemeanor or economic infraction to pay a certain amount of money to the state, within a certain period. Necessary defense - the defense necessary to fend off a simultaneous and unlawful attack from one's own or another person, and the basis for excluding the existence of a criminal offense, an offense committed in self-defense is not a criminal offence. bond - a debt security that obliges the issuer to repay borrowed funds within a certain period with a certain interest, which is paid periodically or added to the principal and paid on maturity. A bond is a credit instrument and is essentially a loan agreement. In the event that the issuer is the state, it can also act as a means of payment to the state for taxes and other fees. Indictment - a written act - a request filed in accordance with the stipulated conditions (usually legal) and by an authorized prosecutor, who initiates criminal proceedings. An indictment is an act that regularly contains information about the accused and the actions attributed to him. The existence of the indictment is a prerequisite for the emergence and survival of criminal proceedings. Withdrawal of an indictment already submitted terminates the criminal proceedings, with the possibility of the plaintiff's succession (which is regulated differently from country to country) in which case the indictment remains valid. Insurance - a legal relationship between the insured and the insured, in which the insurer undertakes, on the basis of the principle of joint bearing of certain risks, to compensate the insured, by paying a certain amount of money or recognizing another right, the damage arising from the occurrence of the insured risk. Insurance premium that collects funds to settle rights arising from the occurrence of the insured risk. Certification - a procedure in which the authenticity of the signature and handwriting of a specific person, the authenticity of a particular document, or the authenticity of the signature of the person who signed the document and the authenticity of the stamps affixed to the document are confirmed before the competent state body. The copy is verified on the basis of comparison with the original document. The text must correspond in all respects to the original document. Lawyer - a person who provides legal assistance to natural and legal persons in the exercise and protection of their legal rights and interests. An attorney may provide all forms of legal assistance, and typical functions are listed: providing legal advice, compiling documents; compile lawsuits, appeals, motions, motions, petitions, and other requests; Representing the parties in court. Lifting the veil - piercing the corporate veil - the exploitation of the company and the deception of creditors have led to the fact that this institute has recently been organized in our country. The rule is that the company is responsible for the obligations assumed with its property, however, the legal objectivity of the company will only be an impenetrable wall if the legal personality of the company is not used for the purposes prohibited by law. If the court finds that the establishment of the company has been misused to achieve illegal goals, there will be a breach of legal personality, and in this case the true relationship between the company and the founders who used the company for fraudulent purposes will be determined. In this case, the owner of the company will have unlimited liability for the obligations of the capital company and will not be able to "hide behind his personality." Pacta sunt Servando - a fundamental principle of contract law, according to which a contract is concluded by law for the contracting parties, who are obliged to fulfill their obligations in the manner specified in the contract and are responsible for the fulfillment of these obligations. The contracting parties may not unilaterally change the contractual provisions or withdraw from the performance of the contract. Patent - a document confirming to the patent holder the exclusive right to economic exploitation of a protected invention in a certain area for a certain period of time. A patent is granted for an invention that is new, innovative and has industrial application. Without the permission of the patent holder, other persons are prohibited from making, offering, selling, using, importing and storing a product made in accordance with the invention, i.e. the application or demonstration of the process subject of the invention is prohibited. to request. Perfection of the contract - the moment of the creation of the contract and the mutual obligations of the contracting parties. From that moment on, all deadlines related to the contract (payment, delivery), certain rights of the parties, obligations of the parties in relation to state bodies (approvals, permits, taxes) are calculated, and, as a rule, the regulations in force at the time of their expiration are applied, regardless Consider subsequent changes. Movables - things that by their nature can be moved from one place to another without changing their essence, although the legal division of things into movable and immovable does not quite correspond to their natural division (therefore ships and aircraft are subject to an appropriate legal system to real estate, and some real estate is considered under certain circumstances movable, separate from immovable property). Insurance policy - a document on the insurance contract, a document signed by the insurance company (possibly an exact copy of the signature) contained in the insurance contract. Possession - a de facto power on a particular side, which gives the possessor certain rights and legal protection in relation to third parties. Claim - a request by the creditor (protected by a compulsory right) that the debtor perform a certain action. Asking for a particular favor or action may also be associated with suffering or neglect. Since they can be transferred from one person to another, receivables become the subject of commercial transactions (on stock exchanges), means of credit and insurance, means of payment, etc. Money laundering - means the transfer of the so-called. “Dirty” money or other real estate gains obtained by criminal or other illegal business with “pure” money, i.e. those that can be used and used as legal income in banking, trading, buying, selling, investing, entrepreneurship etc. of business or investment methods. Therefore, this benefit of property, often money, which according to existing laws must be confiscated as a result of a KD, is used like any other lawfully obtained income. This is an attempt not only to cover up the obligated KD and the property gains, rather its further use would create competition with those who generate income from their business through non-criminal activities. Legal entity - a social innovation whose legal capacity has been recognized by the legal system. Three assumptions are needed for social creation to be recognized as a subject in legal relations: 1. Social creation must have a relatively strong and permanent organization, and represent the organizational unit of the outside world. 2. The organization should have separate assets, separate from the assets of its members. 3. Recognition of legal capacity. Right of Priority (right of first refusal) - the right of a particular person to be the owner of a particular thing that he intends to sell notices of that sale and to offer to buy that thing on terms offered to other persons, before offering it to other potential buyers. Only if that person refuses to buy the item, that is, they don't respond to the offer within a reasonable or agreed-upon period of time, can the owner offer it for sale to other people. Proposal for execution (execution) - a written act of the bailiff proceeding with the execution procedure. A request for enforcement shall include a request for enforcement stating the enforceable document or argument on the basis of which the enforcement request is made, the plaintiff and agent for enforcement, the claim to be executed and the means by which it is to be executed and, if necessary, the subject matter to be executed. Privatization - generally the process of transferring ownership or control of a state's property and companies, from the state to private investors. Privatization takes place according to different models. One of the models is the transfer or sale of shares / business stakes of state-owned enterprises to the population, for all or according to certain criteria. The second form is the so-called "outsourcing". It is a privatization carried out in such a way that some activities of public interest financed by the state or local and regional self-government units are transferred to private entrepreneurs. Usually the so-called. Public, community or public services. Discount - It is a discount from the retail price of the goods/services given by the manufacturer to the distributor to cover operating costs. It is expressed as a percentage of the retail price set by the seller. Recession - an episodic slowdown in a country's economic activity accompanied by a simultaneous deterioration in the general economic climate (decline in real income, rising unemployment, lower utilization of productive capacity...). Recession is less deep and serious than recession. It recurs at intervals of several years, usually starting in one country and taking a certain number of months, i.e. quarters, to pass on to other countries. Recovery - It is the return of the recipient in the name of fulfillment in the restoration of the previous state. In our legislation, the primary duty of the contracting parties in case of nullity is to return the case in full, so that each of them has to return to the other everything he has acquired under this contract. The same applies in the event of annulment of the contract of cassation. Joint and several liability - A type of liability in which each of the multiple pests is liable for the entire damage regardless of their share in causing it. As a general rule, joint and several liability for tort arises when certain torts are caused by several persons by acting together. Their agitators and assistants are in solidarity with the direct perpetrators. Bankruptcy - court proceedings on the debtor's property that has become insolvent (in some legal systems and on the debtor's property that is heavily indebted). It can be initiated by the creditors of the debtor company or by the debtor company itself. The debtor's property becomes the bankruptcy estate from which the debts of the bankruptcy creditors are settled. The bodies for bankruptcy proceedings are the bankruptcy board, the bankruptcy judge, and the bankruptcy trustee. Bankruptcy estate - all the assets of the debtor at the time of initiation of the bankruptcy proceedings and assets acquired during the bankruptcy proceedings, which serve to cover the costs of the bankruptcy proceedings and the claims of the debtor's creditors for bankruptcy, or claims that are settled under certain rights of the debtor. The debtor's property. The purpose of punishment - to express social condemnation of the crime; to influence the offender not to commit criminal offenses in the future and to encourage his re-education; to influence others not to commit crimes; Influencing citizens" awareness of the seriousness of criminal offenses and the fairness of punishing perpetrators. Bankruptcy trustee - an expert appointed by the bankruptcy board on the basis of a decision of a competent court, who assumes the role of management of the company in which the bankruptcy takes place. His duties are to: update bookkeeping records by the day the bankruptcy proceedings open, prepare an estimate of the costs of the bankruptcy proceedings, and submit it to the bankruptcy board for approval, organize a commission for the inventory of the bankruptcy estate to complete the liquidation of uncollected receivables to debtors, liquidate things and rights that come into the possession of bankruptcy debtors, and collect A draft of the main section and a draft decision for the subsequent section. The bankruptcy trustee is entitled to reimburse the necessary expenses and bonuses for the work done, and is responsible for any damage (except for damage caused by the approval of the bankruptcy board or the bankruptcy judge) of all participants in the bankruptcy proceedings. Subsidy - a form of financial assistance provided by the state to enterprises and entrepreneurs (stimulating production, protecting population standards) for a strictly defined purpose. Depending on the purpose, a large number of subsidies differ: according to permanence (permanent and occasional), according to the type of organization / beneficiary (economic and non-economic organizations), according to the source of funding (budget, various funds) according to the purpose (grants, resources, premiums). Social controlled prices, export premiums, development premiums, tax exemption, exemption for companies from paying taxes, subscriptions, customs duties, etc.). Subsidies are a kind of economic and social policy tool. Co-borrower and guarantor - persons who, together with the borrower, jointly guarantee the bank for regular repayment and agree that in case of irregular repayment of the loan, the bank can collect their receivables from them. The difference between them is that the co-borrower, in addition to this guarantee, enhances the creditworthiness of the borrower, so it is required in the loan only when the borrower is not fully creditworthy, for example when it does not have sufficient elevation. Salary for the requested loan amount. Joint ownership - a person's property right over a material (actual) undivided object, provided that the share of each of them is determined in proportion to the whole (ideal part). This perfect fraction is also called the division fraction and is expressed in fractions or percentages, eg someone is a co-owner or 25% of the house but not an actual divided house, eg the ground floor, rather than joint ownership - each part of the home. The co-owners are entitled to jointly manage the matter, provided that the consent of the majority is required for normal management activities (such as repairing items), and the consent of all co-owners is required for extraordinary management activities (such as sales, rentals). When making a decision, most people decide on the division size, not the heads. Harm - occurs in two forms, as physical harm or limitation of someone's property, or preventing the increase of someone's property, or as non-pecuniary harm, as a result of causing bodily pain, fear, disability, or mental anguish by injury to honor and reputation. burden of proof - the obligation of a party to a proceeding to establish a fact in its favor, regardless of who stated that fact in the proceeding. commercial court - in the first place, adjudicating disputes between economic entities or disputes arising from corporate law, copyrights, related rights and foreign investments; In the field of criminal law, this court primarily tries proceedings relating to economic crimes, and keeps a register of legal entities. Proceedings for "administrative silence" - a type of lawsuit in an administrative dispute that is brought in cases where the administrative body does not decide on an appeal against the first administrative action, or when it fails to issue an administrative action on matters where the appeal is not permitted, or when it does not The governing body makes any decision at the request of the party. Claim in Civil Proceedings - The initial civil action of a plaintiff who initiates civil proceedings, essentially representing a request for legal protection for certain content. Lawsuit in an administrative dispute - preliminary action in an administrative dispute in which the plaintiff requests the competent court to consider the legality of the final administrative act. Plaintiff - a party to civil proceedings on the basis of a claim that initiates civil proceedings; Also, the party to the administrative dispute whose claim is being considered by the competent court on the legality of the final administrative action. Punishment reduction - the power of a court to measure the type and measure of punishment for a criminal offender below a specified minimum penalty (up to the statutory minimum penalty) and to substitute one type of punishment for another, lighter type of punishment. Investigation - evidence on the basis of which the body conducting the procedure (a court or administrative body) determines on the basis of its perceptual presence the relevant facts. A criminal offense against honor and reputation, a statement (oral or written) or behavior that violates someone's honor and reputation. Reputation - a set of intangible values \u200b\u200bacquired by a person through life and work in a certain social environment, the idea of others about human values \u200b\u200bka, its external and objective part. Contract - agreement of the will of two or more persons according to which the contracting parties bind each other to certain acts. Annulment of a judgment or decision - A decision made by the competent court to decide on the legal remedy through which the contested decision is to be raised. Force, and sends the case back to the lower court for retrial. Registration - entry in the land books through which land registration rights are obtained or lost (property right, slave right, mortgage right, etc.). Intervener - A person who has an interest in the success of a party in a civil action and can therefore enter into a claim on the part of that party. Intent - the attitude of the offender towards the criminal offense, which means that the offender was aware of the possibility of a consequence, and that he wanted or agreed to such an outcome. Administrative body - an administrative body and other government bodies, as well as a company and other organization entrusted by law to exercise public power carrying out administrative actions. Administrative procedure - a set of rules regulating the competence, procedures, forms of procedures and actions carried out and adopted by administrative bodies when making a decision on the rights and obligations of natural and legal persons who appear as parties to this procedure. Administrative dispute - a special type of dispute in which the competent court decides on the legality of final administrative actions (see: Final administrative action). Administrative court - the court which, in accordance with the provisions of the Law on Organization of Courts, the entry into force of which has been postponed several times and which has not yet fully entered into force, is exclusively competent to decide lawsuits in administrative disputes. Referral to a juvenile disciplinary center - a type of disciplinary measure applied to juvenile offenders of the law when a court finds that a short-term disciplinary measure in a private institution can influence a juvenile to align his or her behavior with the social and legal norms of the legal system. Sending to a correctional home - a type of institutional educational measures, applied to juvenile perpetrators of a criminal offense and in accordance with which it is necessary to apply permanent and intensive measures of re-education in a correctional facility as an institution used for rehabilitation. - Education of severely neglected juveniles. Referral to an educational institution is a type of educational-institutional measure applied to juvenile perpetrators of a criminal offense and according to which it is necessary to apply more persistent and intensive re-education measures in an educational institution as an institution for the re-education of slightly neglected minors. A crime, but they have no one to take care of them or they are simply pedagogically neglected. Referral to a special institution - a type of institutional educational measure that is imposed on juvenile criminal offenders who are mentally retarded or disabled (blind, deaf, etc.). accountability - a person's ability to understand the importance of his work and manage his actions; Rationality is a necessary condition for the existence of guilt, that is, criminal responsibility for the crime committed. Arrangement for management and use of a common matter A non-judicial procedure in which a court determines the manner of management and use of a common thing when co-owners or joint users are not able to resolve such issues amicably. Boundary arrangement - a non-judicial procedure in which a court sets boundaries between neighboring properties when boundary markers have been destroyed, damaged, or moved, and neighbors cannot define boundaries by agreement. conditional provision in criminal law - a criminal penalty from the set of warning measures imposed on the criminally responsible offender for a less serious criminal offense in social terms in a situation where it can be expected that the warning with the threat of punishment will sufficiently influence the offender not to commit criminal offenses; With a suspended sentence, the court determines the sentence and at the same time decides that it will not be carried out if the convicted person does not commit a new criminal offense during the investigation. Non-civil procedure - set of legal rules under which ordinary courts act and decide personal, family, property and other legal matters that are resolved by law in non-contentious proceedings. "Extra-trial chamber" - a special bench of the first instance criminal court consisting of three professional judges, which decides a number of important cases. Extraordinary Remedy - Legal defamation used by authorized parties or government agencies by challenging decisions of courts or other government agencies against which no legal remedy can be declared. Extraordinary legal remedy in administrative proceedings -: change and annulment of the decision on an administrative dispute, annulment and annulment based on official supervision, annulment and change of the final decision with the consent or at the request of the party, extraordinary annulment, annulment of the decision). Extraordinary Reduction of Sentences - An extraordinary legal remedy in criminal proceedings, the mitigation of a sentence not carried out if after the judgment become final circumstances which were not present at the time of sentencing or which the court was not aware of although they existed, which would lead to a more moderate conviction. Out-of-court settlement - a contract that, outside court proceedings, resolves, with the mutual consent of the contractor, disputed relations and eliminates doubts regarding rights and obligations. Educational measures - the main type of punishment imposed on juvenile delinquents, as well as, in some cases, on younger adults (up to 21 years of age), (see: reprimand, referral to a disciplinary center for minors, increased supervision of parents or guardians, increased supervision in Another family, increased supervision of guardianship authorities, referral to an educational institution, referral to an educational correctional facility, referral to a private institution). Addicts Council - the second class body in misdemeanor procedures. Verbal assault - a disparaging statement that insults the honor and reputation of the person to whom the statement refers. Trusted document - a document on the basis of which execution is determined for the purpose of realizing a financial claim between legal and natural persons carrying on economic activity (invoice, bill of exchange, check, interest calculation, extracts from business books). Expertise - means of proof provided for in all applicable procedural laws, knowledge of legally relevant facts through persons and experts who possess professional knowledge that the court or other representative body does not have (psychiatrists, pathologists, economists, etc.). Guilt - the psychological attitude of the offender to the committed act expressed by the consciousness and will of the offender, a necessary condition for the existence of criminal responsibility of the offender and a necessary condition for sentencing the offender (see: direct intent, final intent, criminal liability, negligence, conscious negligence, unconscious negligence). Note - a kind of entry in the land registry of facts that may affect the acquisition, restriction or loss of land registry rights (registry of disputes, minors, etc.) Prohibition of communication, activity or duty - a type of security measure aimed, like all other security measures, at the elimination of potentially dangerous situations arising from the personality of the offender or other real circumstances, or at the elimination of conditions or circumstances that may affect the offender. In the future, he commits criminal offenses (see: security measures, compulsory psychiatric treatment and confinement in a health institution, compulsory psychiatric treatment in general, compulsory treatment for alcoholics and drug addicts, confiscation of objects, expulsion of a foreigner from the country). Prohibition of driving a motorized vehicle - the previous point applies. Prohibition of the defendant from leaving the residence - a measure to ensure the presence of the defendant in criminal proceedings. Prohibition of Reform in PEIUS - An institution of criminal procedure law constituted in favor of a defendant whose appeal the Court of Second Instance decided to prevent the Court of Second Instance from imposing a heavier or more severe penalty of the same kind on the defendant. Will (Will) - the legally regulated form of the last will statement, the prescribed forms are: court will, self-will, testament before witnesses, oral testament, military will, ship testament, consular will, testament before a notary. . Detention - the right of the Home Affairs Authority to deprive a person of his or her liberty (up to 48 hours) in pre-criminal proceedings if there is any reason to order detention, in misdemeanours, a measure to ensure the presence of the accused. Detention in a health organization performing activities in the field of neurology - a non-judicial procedure in which a court decides to accommodate a mentally ill person in an appropriate health organization when it is necessary for that person due to the nature of the disease to restrict freedom of movement or communication with the outside world. Joint ownership - the right of ownership of two or more persons (co-owners) of the same thing, but in such a way that their shares are not fixed, but can be determined. Representative - is the person who conducts the litigation proceeding in place of and on behalf of the party, so that court proceedings act directly towards the party and not the representative personally, and the actions taken by the representative are as important as if they were taken by the party themselves. Legal inheritance - inheritance on the basis of certain facts established by law (kinship, marital relationship) in cases where it follows on the basis of a will. Inheritance - the property rights that the testator had at the time of death, and are valid for inheritance. Minutes - a general document on the actions of the participants in the procedure, the results of the presentation of evidence and important statements of the participants. Negligence - in civil law, the loss of the right of the creditor, due to the expiration of the legally established time, to demand from the debtor the obligation to fulfill this obligation in court, in criminal law, the loss of the ability of the competent state body to initiate criminal proceedings, conduct criminal proceedings or carry out a criminal penalty due to the passage of the stipulated time It is in law, and the same applies to other criminal procedures. Imprisonment - a term of imprisonment of not less than thirty days, and not more than fifteen years, except for the most serious crimes and the most serious forms of criminal offences, in which a sentence of forty years imprisonment may be imposed. An application for the protection of legality - an exceptional legal remedy provided for by all applicable procedural laws, announced by the prosecutor of the Supreme Court, on the initiative of the party or independently. Request for Extraordinary Review of Final Decision on Misdemeanors - Exceptional Statutory Remedies in Misdemeanor Proceedings. Request to Examine the Legality of a Final Judgment - An exceptional legal remedy in criminal proceedings that can be brought by a defendant who has been sentenced to unconditional or juvenile imprisonment. Request to initiate misdemeanor proceedings - a procedural procedure according to which a misdemeanor proceeding is initiated before the competent misdemeanor authority. Investigation Request - Criminal Procedure Code by which the authorized applicant (the public prosecutor and the aggrieved party as a public prosecutor) requests that a competent investigative judge during the investigation find and collect evidence in order to decide whether to file an indictment or suspend the proceedings, based on reasonable suspicion. Preventive measures in wrongful actions - measures that should enable, given the personal characteristics or inclination of the defendant, not to commit misdemeanors in the future (prohibition of a legal entity to perform certain activity, prohibition of a responsible person to perform certain activities, material confiscation, prohibition of independent activities, prohibition of driving a car, deporting a foreigner from the territory of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). Land registries - special public records (cadastre) kept by municipal courts as land registry courts on the legal status of real estate on state lands, and competent for legal transactions. It is based on cadastre data. In these books the real rights to the land, the other rights determined by the law and the important facts of the legal transactions determined by the law were introduced. Land records are kept manually or electronically. Land registers, excerpts, i.e. extracts and texts from these books enjoy public faith and have evidentiary value for public documents. It is considered that the cadastre (as a rule) truly and completely reflects the factual and legal state of the land. The cadastre consists of a general ledger and a set of documents. A general ledger is maintained for all cadastral municipality lands. It consists of land registry entries, where only one land registry body is entered. Only land registration entries are made in the general ledger. The Land Registry entry consists of three papers - title deed, title deed and bill of lading. The set of documents consists of documents on the basis of which land registration is permitted. Book entries are recording, pre-recording, and note-taking. A registration is an entry whereby the rights to a book are acquired, transferred, restricted or terminated without special subsequent justification. Title deed and bill of lading. The set of documents consists of documents on the basis of which land registration is permitted. Book entries are recording, pre-recording, and note-taking. A registration is an entry whereby the rights to a book are acquired, transferred, restricted or terminated without special subsequent justification. Title deed and bill of lading. The set of documents consists of documents on the basis of which land registration is permitted. Book entries are recording, pre-recording, and note-taking. A registration is an entry whereby the rights to a book are acquired, transferred, restricted or terminated without special subsequent justification. LAND REGISTER INSERT - an integral part of the general cadastre, it consists of an inventory (a description of the property), a property list (data about the owner of the property) and a consignment note (data on the actual encumbrances on the property). appeal - is a regular legal remedy against first-instance decisions of courts and other state bodies in all proceedings, with the exception of enforcement proceedings (see: objection), mainly representing a request to change or annul the preliminary judgment or decision, and the appeal, with rare exceptions, has a suspensive effect, That is, they postpone the implementation of the contested decision, in addition to the effect of delegation of authority, that is, by filing an appeal, the jurisdiction of another court or decision-making body is established. Complaint due to “the silence of the administration” - a special legal remedy that is announced if the administrative body has not made a decision within the legally established period, that is, it does not make a decision on the administrative issue.


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